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郭國平:量子計算機研發應聚焦實用化 軟硬件協同

文章來源:中國新聞網 劉賢   發布時間:2019-05-09  【字號:     】  

  第十屆后量子密碼國際會議8日在重慶舉行。中國科學技術大學中科院量子信息重點實驗室教授、國家重點基礎研究發展計劃項目A類(超級973)首席科學家郭國平接受中新網記者專訪時建議,中國量子計算機研發應重視整個生態系統。

  量子計算機發展受到廣泛關注。郭國平說,國際上,英特爾、IBM等大型高科技企業已從各種體系的自由探索,發展到目前的聚焦幾個特定體系,如半導體量子芯片、超導量子計算機;并圍繞特定體系,進行軟硬件協同研發。

  多個量子比特的相干操縱和糾纏態制備是發展可擴展量子信息技術,特別是量子計算的核心指標。郭國平認為,有輿論因此非常關注量子比特位數。但這并不全面,因為有質量的量子比特位數才有意義,才會因為增加比特而提升計算能力。

  他主張,像發展經典計算機時一樣,應從量子計算的硬件、操作系統、軟件開發包、語言開發包,到云平臺的整個生態系統去推進量子計算發展,而不能僅僅關注量子比特位數。

  “聚焦實用化,軟硬件協同發展,注重關鍵技術攻關,提高比特質量和數量”,這是郭國平提出的量子計算發展方向。軟硬件協同發展是指除了提高量子比特質量和數量,還應發展控制量子比特的硬件和技術,以及與量子CPU相對應的軟件,探索基于量子計算機的各種算法,推廣中國量子計算機編程語言和標準。

  他坦言,部分研究者重視發表論文,而對量子編程語言等難以發表論文的領域少有著力,量子計算的生態系統發展中還有頗多難題要攻克。這需要政府引導、企業參與,集中各行各業的力量,分工合作。

  他建議改變部分科研項目立項機制,從立項后科研經費直接下撥,變為“項目達到預期目標后再一次性撥款”的“后獎勵”模式。這可以激勵真正潛心研究的人去攻堅克難,減少低水平重復工作。

  研發需要資金投入。郭國平說,量子計算機研發周期長、風險大。國內資本市場對此還處于“看不懂、不敢碰”的狀態。這就需要政府引導,與企業同步投入。

  郭國平是合肥本源量子計算科技有限責任公司首席科學家。本源量子2018年底宣布成功研制中國首款完全自主知識產權的量子計算機控制系統。他笑稱,企業拿出了真金白銀,監管更加高效,更有力地推動研發,“本源量子的資本方天天盯著研究者做實事”。

  “量子計算機的研制開發是長期而艱巨的任務,技術攻關難度非常大、周期非常長、不確定性很高。”郭國平最后說,從事該領域工作應該腳踏實地圍繞一個目標,不停試錯,愿意踩坑,一點一點攻關,才能做出真正能用的量子計算機。

  雖然量子計算機的研發工作目前還處于初期階段,但密碼學界已經未雨綢繆,開始積極研發能夠抵御量子計算攻擊的后量子密碼(PostQuantumCryptography,PQC,亦稱抗量子密碼)。

  后量子密碼作為新型密碼,近年來得到了密碼學界的廣泛關注。5月6日至10日,重慶大學信息物理社會可信服務計算教育部重點實驗室(CPS-DSC實驗室)連續舉辦三場有關后量子密碼的系列活動,包括后量子密碼全球暑期班、2019亞洲后量子密碼論壇和為期三天的第十屆后量子密碼國際會議。來自政府、企業、科研院校愈兩百位嘉賓在大會上介紹、交流計算機以及后量子密碼的研究進展。




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